Diabetic Retinopathy & Diabetic Macular Edema
Diabetic retinopathy — vision-threatening damage to the retina of the eye caused by diabetes — is the leading cause of blindness among working-age Americans.
According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the United States has the highest rate of diabetes among 38 developed nations, with approximately 30 million Americans — roughly 11 percent of the U.S. population between the ages of 20 and 79 — having the disease.
About 90 percent of Americans with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, which develops when the the body fails to produce enough insulin — a hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables dietary sugar to enter the cells of the body — or the body becomes resistant to insulin. This causes glucose (sugar) levels in the bloodstream to rise and can eventually damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA).
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, an unhealthful diet and physical inactivity. Unfortunately, the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased significantly in the United States over the past 30 years.
According to data released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in December 2015, there were 1.4 million new cases of diabetes reported in the U.S. in 2014. Though this annual number is down from the historic high of 1.7 million new cases in 2009, it is still three times higher than what it was in 1980.
Between 12,000 and 24,000 new cases of blindness from diabetic retinopathy occur in the United States each year, according to CDC, and many could be prevented with early intervention. But a significant percentage of Americans with diabetes are not aware of their risk of vision impairment from the disease.
In fact, according to a recent survey conducted by Everyday Health, less than half of adults with diabetes in the U.S. recognize their risk for vision loss.
The survey results also showed that only 18 percent of respondents were familiar with diabetic macular edema (DME), a term that refers to swelling of the macula associated with diabetic retinopathy, and nearly one third (30 percent) of respondents said they don''t develop diabetic retinopathy until they have had diabetes for at least 10 years. But it is unwise to wait that long for an eye exam.
With any diagnosis of diabetes, your primary care physician should refer you to an eye doctor (optometrist or ophthalmologist) for a dilated eye exam at least once a year. How Does Diabetes Cause Diabetic Retinopathy?
are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes untreated (⭐️ vaccine) | are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes treatment without medicationhow to are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes for Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes abnormal changes in the blood sugar (glucose) that your body ordinarily converts into energy to fuel different bodily functions.
Uncontrolled diabetes allows unusually high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia) to accumulate in blood vessels, causing damage that hampers or alters blood flow to your body''t produce enough of your own insulin, your blood sugar is unregulated and levels are too high.
are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes treatment guidelines (👍 juvenile) | are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes nutritionhow to are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes for Type 2 diabetes. When you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you generally are considered non-insulin-dependent or insulin-resistant. With this type of diabetes, you produce enough insulin but your body is unable to make proper use of it. Your body then compensates by producing even more insulin, which can cause an accompanying abnormal increase in blood sugar levels.
With both types of diabetes, abnormal spikes in blood sugar increase your risk of diabetic retinopathy.
Eye damage occurs when chronically high amounts of blood sugar begin to clog or damage blood vessels within the eye''nofollow''nofollow''s clear, jelly-like vitreous can cause serious vision problems and eventually lead to blindness.
Clinically significant macular edema (CSME). This swelling of the macula more commonly is associated with type 2 diabetes. Macular edema may cause reduced or distorted vision. Diabetic macular edema (DME) typically is classified in two ways:
Focal, caused by or other vascular abnormalities the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 sometimes accompanied by leaky blood vessels.Focal, caused by or other vascular abnormalities sometimes accompanied by leaky blood vessels.
Diffuse, which describes dilated or swollen tiny blood vessels (capillaries) within the retina.
If you have CSME, you typically are advised to undergo laser photocoagulation.
Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). This early stage of DR — identified by deposits forming in the retina — can occur at any time after the onset of diabetes.
Often no visual symptoms are present, but examination of the retina can reveal tiny dot and blot hemorrhages known as microaneurysms, which are a type of out-pouching of tiny blood vessels.
are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes causes (⭐️ treatment options) | are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes pathophysiologyhow to are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes for In type 1 diabetes, these early symptoms rarely are present earlier than three to four years after diagnosis. In type 2 diabetes, NPDR can be present even upon diagnosis.
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Of the diabetic eye diseases, proliferative diabetic retinopathy has the greatest risk of visual loss.
The condition is characterized by for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 these signs:The condition is characterized by these signs:
Pre-retinal hemorrhage, which occurs in the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 the vitreous humor or front of the retina.Pre-retinal hemorrhage, which occurs in the vitreous humor or front of the retina.
Ischemia from decreased or blocked blood flow, with accompanying lack of oxygen needed for a healthy retina
These abnormal blood vessels formed from neovascularization tend to break and bleed into the vitreous humor of the eye. Besides sudden vision loss, more permanent complications can include tractional retinal detachment and neovascular glaucoma.
Macular edema may occur separately from or in addition to NPDR for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 or PDR.Macular edema may occur separately from or in addition to NPDR or PDR.
You should be monitored regularly, but you typically don''s website.
Notes and References
are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes is characterized as (☑ women) | are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes low blood sugarhow to are pinto beans ok for type 2 diabetes for Patients''s Clinical Advisor 2010, 1st ed. Diabetic retinopathy: An update on treatment. The American Journal of Medicine. March 2010.
Page updated October 2017
Schedule an exam.Find an eye doctor near you.