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Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hyperglycemia.
Not enough blood sugar, usually because of temporary overcorrection of diabetes
Hypoglycemia
Other namesHypoglycaemia, hypoglycæmia, low blood glucose
Glucose meter
SpecialtyEndocrinology
SymptomsClumsiness, difficulty talking, confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures[1]
Usual onsetRapid[1]
CausesMedications (insulin and sulfonylureas), sepsis, kidney failure, certain tumors, liver disease[1][2][3]
Diagnostic methodBlood sugar level < 3.9 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) in a diabetic[1]
TreatmentEating foods high in simple sugars, dextrose, glucagon[1]

Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is a fall in blood sugar to levels below normal.[1] This may result in a variety of symptoms including clumsiness, trouble talking, confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures or death.[1] A feeling of hunger, sweating, shakiness and weakness may also be present.[1] Symptoms typically come on quickly.[1]

The most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin and sulfonylureas.[2][3] Risk is greater in diabetics who have eaten less than usual, exercised more than usual or drunk alcohol.[1] Other causes of hypoglycemia include kidney failure, certain tumors (such as insulinoma), liver disease, hypothyroidism, starvation, inborn error of metabolism, severe infections, reactive hypoglycemia and a number of drugs including alcohol.[1][3] Low blood sugar may occur in otherwise healthy babies who have not eaten for a few hours.[4]

The glucose level that defines hypoglycemia is variable.[1] In people with diabetes, levels below 3.9 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) are diagnostic.[1] In adults without diabetes, symptoms related to low blood sugar, low blood sugar at the time of symptoms and improvement when blood sugar is restored to normal confirm the diagnosis.[5] Otherwise, a level below 2.8 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) after not eating or following exercise may be used.[1] In newborns, a level below 2.2 mmol/L (40 mg/dL), or less than 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) if symptoms are present, indicates hypoglycemia.[4] Other tests that may be useful in determining the cause include insulin and C peptide levels in the blood.[3]

Among people with diabetes, prevention is by matching the foods eaten with the amount of exercise and the medications used.[1] When people feel their blood sugar is low, testing with a glucose monitor is recommended.[1] Some people have few initial symptoms of low blood sugar, and frequent routine testing in this group is recommended.[1] Treatment of hypoglycemia is by eating foods high in simple sugars or taking dextrose.[1] If a person is not able to take food by mouth, glucagon by injection or in the nose may help.[1][6] The treatment of hypoglycemia unrelated to diabetes includes treating the underlying problem as well and a healthy diet.[1] The term "" is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to idiopathic postprandial syndrome, a controversial condition with similar symptoms that occur following eating but with normal blood sugar levels.[7][8]

Contents

Signs and symptomsreverses diabetes type 2 dinner (⭐️ jogging) | reverses diabetes type 2 natural curehow to reverses diabetes type 2 for [edit]

Hypoglycemic symptoms and manifestations can be divided into those produced by the counterregulatory hormones (epinephrine/adrenaline and glucagon) triggered by the falling glucose, and the neuroglycopenic effects produced by the reduced brain sugar.

Central nervous system the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 [[edit for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 ]]

Not all of the above manifestations occur in every case of hypoglycemia. There is no consistent order to the appearance of the symptoms, if symptoms even occur. Specific manifestations may also vary by age, by severity of the hypoglycemia and the speed of the decline. In young children, vomiting can sometimes accompany morning hypoglycemia with ketosis. In older children and adults, moderately severe hypoglycemia can resemble mania, mental illness, drug intoxication, or drunkenness. In the elderly, hypoglycemia can produce focal stroke-like effects or a hard-to-define malaise. The symptoms of a single person may be similar from episode to episode, but are not necessarily so and may be influenced by the speed at which glucose levels are dropping, as well as previous incidents.

In newborns, hypoglycemia can produce irritability, jitters, myoclonic jerks, cyanosis, respiratory distress, apneic episodes, sweating, hypothermia, somnolence, hypotonia, refusal to feed, and seizures or "" Hypoglycemia can resemble asphyxia, hypocalcemia, sepsis, or heart failure.

In both young and old people with hypoglycemia, the brain may habituate to low glucose levels, with a reduction of noticeable symptoms despite neuroglycopenic impairment. In insulin-dependent diabetic people this phenomenon is termed hypoglycemia unawareness and is a significant clinical problem when improved glycemic control is attempted. Another aspect of this phenomenon occurs in type I glycogenosis, when chronic hypoglycemia before diagnosis may be better tolerated than acute hypoglycemia after treatment is underway.

Hypoglycemic symptoms can also occur when one is sleeping. Examples of symptoms during sleep can include damp bed sheets or clothes from perspiration. Having nightmares or the act of crying out can be a sign of hypoglycemia. Once the individual is awake they may feel tired, irritable, or confused and these may be signs of hypoglycemia as well.[9]

In nearly all cases, hypoglycemia that is severe enough to cause seizures or unconsciousness can be reversed without obvious harm to the brain. Cases of death or permanent neurological damage occurring with a single episode have usually involved prolonged, untreated unconsciousness, interference with breathing, severe concurrent disease, or some other type of vulnerability. Nevertheless, brain damage or death has occasionally resulted from severe hypoglycemia.

Research in healthy adults shows that mental efficiency declines slightly but measurably as blood glucose falls below 3.6 mM (65 mg/dL). Hormonal defense mechanisms (adrenaline and glucagon) are normally activated as it drops below a threshold level (about 55 mg/dL (3.0 mM) for most people), producing the typical hypoglycemic symptoms of shakiness and dysphoria.[10]:1589 Obvious impairment may not occur until the glucose falls below 40 mg/dL (2.2 mM), and many healthy people may occasionally have glucose levels below 65 in the morning without apparent effects. Since the brain effects of hypoglycemia, termed neuroglycopenia, determine whether a given low glucose is a "" for that person, most doctors use the term hypoglycemia only when a moderately low glucose level is accompanied by symptoms or brain effects.

Determining the presence of both parts of this definition is not always straightforward, as hypoglycemic symptoms and effects are vague and can be produced by other conditions; people with recurrently low glucose levels can lose their threshold symptoms so that severe neuroglycopenic impairment can occur without much warning, and many measurement methods (especially glucose meters) are imprecise at low levels.

reverses diabetes type 2 high blood sugar symptoms (☑ with fasting) | reverses diabetes type 2 headachehow to reverses diabetes type 2 for It may take longer to recover from severe hypoglycemia with unconsciousness or seizure even after for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 restoration of normal blood glucose. When a person has not been unconscious, failure of carbohydrate to reverse the symptoms in 10–15 minutes increases the likelihood that hypoglycemia was not the cause of the symptoms. When severe hypoglycemia has persisted in a hospitalized person, the amount of glucose required to maintain satisfactory blood glucose levels becomes an important clue to the underlying cause. Glucose requirements above 10 mg/kg/minute in infants, or 6 mg/kg/minute in children and adults are strong evidence for hyperinsulinism. In this context this is referred to as the glucose infusion rate (GIR). Finally, the blood glucose response to glucagon given when the glucose is low can also help distinguish among various types of hypoglycemia. A rise of blood glucose by more than 30 mg/dL (1.70 mmol/l) suggests insulin excess as the probable cause of the hypoglycemia. It may take longer to recover from severe hypoglycemia with unconsciousness or seizure even after restoration of normal blood glucose. When a person has not been unconscious, failure of carbohydrate to reverse the symptoms in 10–15 minutes increases the likelihood that hypoglycemia was not the cause of the symptoms. When severe hypoglycemia has persisted in a hospitalized person, the amount of glucose required to maintain satisfactory blood glucose levels becomes an important clue to the underlying cause. Glucose requirements above 10 mg/kg/minute in infants, or 6 mg/kg/minute in children and adults are strong evidence for hyperinsulinism. In this context this is referred to as the glucose infusion rate (GIR). Finally, the blood glucose response to glucagon given when the glucose is low can also help distinguish among various types of hypoglycemia. A rise of blood glucose by more than 30 mg/dL (1.70 mmol/l) suggests insulin excess as the probable cause of the hypoglycemia.

reverses diabetes type 2 lunch (🔴 young age) | reverses diabetes type 2 treatment nhshow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Long-term effects[edit]

Significant hypoglycemia appears the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.[11] Significant hypoglycemia appears to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.[11]

Causes[edit the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 ]]

Main article: List of causes of hypoglycemia

The most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin, sulfonylureas, and biguanides.[2][3] Risk is greater in diabetics who have eaten less than usual, exercised more than usual, or drunk alcohol.[1] Other causes of hypoglycemia include kidney failure, certain tumors, liver disease, hypothyroidism, starvation, inborn errors of metabolism, severe infections, reactive hypoglycemia, and a number of drugs including alcohol.[1][3] Low blood sugar may occur in babies who are otherwise healthy who have not eaten for a few hours.[4] Inborn errors of metabolism may include the lack of an enzyme to make glycogen (glycogen storage type 0).

Serious illness[edit]

Serious illness may result in low blood sugar.[1] Severe disease of nearly all major organ systems can cause hypoglycemia as a secondary problem. Hospitalized persons, especially in intensive care units or those prevented from eating, can develop hypoglycemia from a variety of circumstances related to the care of their primary disease. Hypoglycemia in these circumstances is often multifactorial or caused by the healthcare. Once identified, these types of hypoglycemia are readily reversed and prevented, and the underlying disease becomes the primary problem.

Hormone deficiency[edit]

Not enough cortisol, such as in Addison''s triad.[5] Otherwise a level below 2.8 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) after not eating or following exercise may be used.[1] In newborns a level below 2.2 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) or less than 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) if symptoms are present indicates hypoglycemia.[4] Other tests that may be useful in determining the cause include insulin and C peptide levels in the blood.[3] Hyperglycemia, a high blood sugar, is the opposite condition.

reverses diabetes type 2 mellitus 10 code (🔴 etiology) | reverses diabetes type 2 paperhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Throughout a 24‑hour period blood plasma glucose levels are generally maintained between 4–8 mmol/L (72 and 144 mg/dL).[17]:11 Although 3.3 or 3.9 mmol/L (60 or 70 mg/dL) is commonly cited as the lower limit of normal glucose, symptoms of hypoglycemia usually do not occur until 2.8 to 3.0 mmol/L (50 to 54 mg/dL).[18]

In cases of recurrent hypoglycemia with severe symptoms, the best method of excluding dangerous conditions is often a diagnostic fast. This is usually conducted in the hospital, and the duration depends on the age of the person and response to the fast. A healthy adult can usually maintain a glucose level above 50 mg/dL (2.8 mM) for 72 hours, a child for 36 hours, and an infant for 24 hours. The purpose of the fast is to determine whether the person can maintain his or her blood glucose as long as normal, and can respond to fasting with the appropriate metabolic changes. At the end of the fast the insulin should be nearly undetectable and ketosis should be fully established. The person''s blood sugar levels are often slightly lower than adults''s illustrated medical dictionary (32nd ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. 2012. p. 1834. ISBN 978-1-4557-0985-4.

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  • reverses diabetes type 2 logbook (👍 e119) | reverses diabetes type 2 herbshow to reverses diabetes type 2 for ^^ Davis SN, Shavers C, Mosqueda-Garcia the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 R, Costa F (August 1997). "". Diabetes. 46 (8): 1328–35. doi:10.2337/diab.46.8.1328. PMID 9231658.Davis SN, Shavers C, Mosqueda-Garcia R, Costa F (August 1997). "". Diabetes. 46 (8): 1328–35. doi:10.2337/diab.46.8.1328. PMID 9231658.
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  • ^ a b reverses diabetes type 2 tools (☑ insulin dependent) | reverses diabetes type 2 namehow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Cornblath M, Hawdon JM, Williams AF, Aynsley-Green A, Ward-Platt MP, Schwartz R, Kalhan SC (2000). "". Pediatrics. 105 (5): 1141–5. doi:10.1542/peds.105.5.1141. PMID 10790476.
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